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Table 1 Characteristics of needle insertions

From: Robotic assistance for percutaneous needle insertion in the kidney: preclinical proof on a swine animal model

Parameter n Mean (SD) Median (Q1; Q3) Min; Max
Distance from skin entry point to target (mm) 8 50.9 (13.8) 52.5 (39.8; 59.5) 31.0; 73.0
Orbital angulations (°) 8 -11.1 (26.8) -6.0 (-26.8; 3.9) -59.8; 28.5
Cranio-caudal angulations (°) 8 21.3 (19.1) 16.8 (6.9; 35.6) -0.8; 52.7
Time from the beginning of the procedure (turning on the device) to needle placement (min) 8 21.8 (7.5) 21.0 (15.5; 26.5) 13.0; 35.0
  1. Max Maximum, Min Minimum, Q1 Inferior quartile, Q3 Superior quartile, SD Standard deviation