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Table 2 Cox regression analysis for overall survival with a restricted 2-year follow-up

From: Automated artificial intelligence-based analysis of skeletal muscle volume predicts overall survival after cystectomy for urinary bladder cancer

  Univariable Multivariable model 1 Multivariable model 2
  HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Age, years 1.01 (0.98–1.03) 0.676     
Sex male 1.18 (0.72–1.93) 0.512     
Smoking 1.09 (0.66–1.81) 0.728     
ASA score 3–4 2.18 (1.45–3.28) < 0.001 2.35 (1.56–3.55) < 0.001 2.47 (1.63–3.73) < 0.001
cT stage 2–4 3.15 (1.91–5.21) < 0.001 3.24 (1.96–5.37) < 0.001 3.50 (2.11–5.81) < 0.001
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy 1.19 (0.62–2.29) 0.608     
Previous pelvic surgery or radiotherapy 1.08 (0.68–1.70) 0.747     
Muscle volume below median 1.66 (1.10–2.50) 0.016 1.62 (1.07–2.44) 0.022   
Muscle volume       
Quartile 4 1 (ref)     1 (ref)  
Quartile 3 0.93 (0.49–1.76) 0.821    0.99 (0.52–1.87) 0.964
Quartile 2 1.24 (0.68–2.26) 0.480    1.12 (0.62–2.05) 0.704
Quartile 1 1.99 (1.14–3.46) 0.015    2.26 (1.30–3.95) 0.004
  1. ASA score was dichotomised 1–2 versus 3–4. cT stage was dichotomised muscle invasive versus noninvasive. Muscle volumes were dichotomised higher versus lower than median values, and grouped into quartiles, for men and women separately. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, CI Confidence interval, cT Clinical local tumour stage, HR Hazard ratio