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Table 3 Imaging parameters: source-to-detector distance (SDD), beam nergy (kVp), beam intensity (mAs), additional copper filtration (Cu filter), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), mean perceptual image quality (IQ) score, effective dose (ED), and change in ED in comparison with the reference image, highest IQ score image, and sixth lowest ED images (14)

From: Effective dose and image optimisation of lateral lumbar spine radiography: a phantom study

ImageSDDkVpmAsAdditional Cu filter
(mm Al)
CNRMean IQ score ± SDED
Change in ED (%)
Highest IQ score1307518. ± 0.410.0218-0.70
Highest ED
(Ref. image)
1007518. ± 0.00.02200.00
6th lowest ED150954.50.12.99-1.7 ± 0.410.0042-80.90
5th lowest ED1507518.00.33.5-1.8 ± 0.410.0041-81.50
4th lowest ED130954.50.32.24-1.8 ± 0.410.0040-81.60
3rd lowest ED150859.00.33.22-1.8 ± 0.410.0036-83.60
2nd lowest ED150954.50.22.56-2.0 ± 0.00.0035-85.0
Lowest ED
(and IQ score)
150954.50.32.13-2.0 ± 0.00.0029-87.0
  1. SD Standard deviation