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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: A novel MRI index for paraspinal muscle fatty infiltration: reliability and relation to pain and disability in lumbar spinal stenosis: results from a multicentre study

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
• Age between 18 and 80 years
• Clinical symptoms of LSS
• Not responding to at least 3 months of non-surgical treatment
• Radiological findings (foraminal, central canal, or lateral recess stenosis) corresponding to the clinical symptoms such as back pain, leg pain, or neurologic claudication
• Understanding the Norwegian language (spoken and written)
• Previous surgery at the level of stenosis
• Previous fracture or fusion of the thoraco-lumbar spine
• Cauda equina syndrome (bowel or bladder dysfunction) or fixed complete motor deficit
• ASA grade 4 or 5
• More than 20° lumbosacral scoliosis
• Distinct symptoms in lower limbs due to other diseases
• Stenosis in more than three lumbar levels
• Being unable to comply fully with the protocol
• Isthmic defect in pars interarticularis at the level of stenosis
• Participation in another clinical study that could interfere with the present trial
• Alcohol or substance abuse
• ≥ 3 mm spondylolisthesis verified on upright lateral view x-ray
• Axial T2-weighted MR images not covering the paraspinal and the psoas muscles at both sides of the spine or angulated more than 5° to the upper endplate of the vertebra at the level of measurement
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, LSS Lumbar spinal stenosis