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Table 2 Needle placement accuracy: summary of 3D, lateral, and depth deviations

From: Robotic assistance for percutaneous needle insertion in the kidney: preclinical proof on a swine animal model

Parameter n Mean (SD) Median (Q1; Q3) Min; Max LS Mean
[95% upper limit]
p value*
3D deviation (mm) 8 2.80 (1.31) 2.68 (1.75; 3.88) 1.18; 4.64 2.73 [0; 6.79] 0.0877
Lateral deviation (mm) 8 2.27 (1.18) 2.16 (1.40; 3.02) 0.74; 4.28 2.27 [0; 3.06] 0.0002
Depth deviation (mm) 8 0.70 (1.69) 1.02 (-0.42; 1.83) -2.25; 2.99 0.70 [0; 1.83] <.0001
  1. 3D Three-dimensional, Max Maximum, Min Minimum, Q1 Inferior quartile, Q3 Superior quartile, SD Standard deviation
  2. *p value for unilateral testing distance H0 >5 mm versus H1 ≤ 5 mm. Least square (LS) mean and 95% upper limit taking into account intra-animal and fiducial nested in animal variability structure