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Table 5 Design and realisation of brain perfusion phantoms for quantitative perfusion imaging (PI)

From: Quantitative imaging: systematic review of perfusion/flow phantoms

1st author, year [reference]Perfusion measure(s)Phantom performanceQ
Direct comparison with Q
 Klotz, 1999 [29]BFr = 0.99050–140 mL/min
 Wang, 2010 [27]BFr > 0.83445–180 mL/min
 Mathys, 2012 [31]BFr = 0.995200–600 mL/min
 Peladeau-Pigeon, 2013 [12]BFr = 0.992210–450 mL/min
 Ohno, 2017 [33]BFr > 0.90240–480 mL/min
 Ziemer, 2015 [40]BFr = 0.980.96–2.49 mL/g/min
 O’Doherty, 2017 [36]BFr = 0.991–5 mL/g/min
 Andersen, 2000 [9]BFε ≈ 0.015 ± 0.03 cm/s
ε ≈ 0.001 ± 0.03 cm/s
0.015 ± 0.002 cm/s
0.570 ± 0.003 cm/s
 Ressner, 2006 [39]BFε > 40%
ε < 20%
1–3 cm/s
5–7 cm/s
 Zarinabad, 2012 [35]BFε = 0.007 ± 0.002 mL/g/min
ε = 0.23 ± 0.26 ml/g/min
0.5 mL/g/min
5 mL/g/min
 Zarinabad, 2014 [34]BFε < 0.03 mL/g/min
ε < 0.05 ml/g/min
2.5–5 mL/g/min
1–2.5 mL/g/min
 Suzuki, 2017 [25]BFε ≈ 0.0589 ± 0.0108 mL/g/min0.1684 mL/g/min
 Hashimoto, 2018 [24]BFε ≈ 0.0446 ± 0.0130 mL/g/min0.1684 mL/g/min
 Ebrahimi, 2019 [32]BFBF/Q > 0.60.12–1.2 mL/min
Indirect comparison with Q 
 Veltmann, 2002 [17]rkinr > 0.984, χ2 < 0.01910–45 mL/min
 Chai, 2002 [20]∆SI ratior = 0.99550–300 mL/min
 Cangür, 2004 [28]TTP
PSI
AUC
PG
FWHM
r = -0.964
r = 0.683
r = 0.668
r = 0.907
r = -0.63
1.8–21.6 mL/min
 Myer-Wiethe, 2005 [16]∆SIr = 0.994.5–36 mL/min
 Lee, 2016 [19]fpr > 0.8381–3 mL/min
 O’Doherty, 2017 [36]SIr = 0.99
r = 0.99
1–5 mL/g/min (MRI)
1.2–5.1 mL/g/min (MRI vs PET)
 Kim, 2016 [14]AUCEfficiency <50%0.1–2.0 mL/min
 Claassen, 2001 [30]AUC, PSI, MTTNo clear correlation with Q 
  1. Phantom performance is predominantly listed in correlation statistics (rχ2) and absolute errors (ε). A distinction is made between direct and indirect comparison with a “ground truth” flow measure (Q), which consists of theoretical or experimental values. BF Blood flow, TTP Time to peak, MTT Mean transit time, AUC Area under the curve, (P)SI Peak signal intensity, fp Perfusion fraction, rkin Replenishment kinetics, FWHM Full width at half maximum, PG Positive gradient