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Table 4 Design and realisation of finger, liver, and tumour perfusion phantoms for quantitative perfusion imaging (PI)

From: Quantitative imaging: systematic review of perfusion/flow phantoms

PublicationPhantom designPI applicationPhantom application
1st author,
year [reference]
(see Fig. 3)
Flow profileFlow rangeMotion simulationSurrounding tissue simulationPerfusion deficit simulationImaging modalityContrast protocolBlood flow modelInput variablesAIFRFMTTBVBFData comparisonCommercial
Finger phantom
 Sakano, 2015 [41]2Bc6–30 A   USx 1, 3 x     
Liver phantoms
 Gauthier, 2011 [42]2Bc130 A   USx 3 xx  H 
 Low, 2018 [43]3A-20.5 A   CTx 1       
Tumour phantom
 Cho, 2012 [44]3A,3Bp-   MRI DWI1, 4 x     
  1. c Continuous, p Pulsatile, A in mL/min, B in mL/min/g, C in cm/s, FAIR Flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery, MBD Model-based deconvolution, 1-TCM Single tissue compartment model, DWI Diffusion weighted imaging, ASL Arterial spin labelling, SVD Singular value decomposition, MSM Maximum slope model, 1 = Phantom/patient characteristics, 2 = Contrast protocol, 3 = Imaging method, 4 = Flow quantification method, AIF Arterial input function, RF Response function, MTT Mean transit time, BV Blood volume, BF Blood flow, H Human, A Animal, M Mathematical