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Table 1 Design and realisation of general perfusion phantoms in quantitative perfusion imaging (PI)

From: Quantitative imaging: systematic review of perfusion/flow phantoms

PublicationPhantom designPI applicationPhantom application
1st author,
year [reference]
(see Fig. 3)
Flow profileFlow rangeMotion simulationSurrounding tissue simulationPerfusion deficit simulationImaging modalityContrast protocolBlood flow modelInput variablesAIFRFMTTBVBFData comparisonCommercial
General phantoms
 Andersen, 2000 [9]1Ac0.015–0.57 C   MRI FAIR1, 4 x  x  
 Brauweiler, 2012 [10]1Ap180 A x CTx 2, 3xx     
 Li, 2002 [11]1A, 2Bc500–1300 A   USxMBD1xxxx M 
 Peladeau-Pigeon, 2013 [12]1Bc, p210–450 A x MRI, CTxMBD (Fick, modif. Toft)1–3xx  xMx
 Driscoll, 2011 [13]1Bp150–270 A x CTx 1–3xx    x
 Kim, 2016 [14]2Bc0–2 Ax  US  1, 3 x     
 Anderson, 2011 [15]2Bc50 A   MRIx 1 x     
 Meyer-Wiethe, 2005 [16]2Bc4.5–36 A   USxReplenishment1, 3, 4 x     
 Veltmann, 2002 [17]2Bc10–45 A   USxReplenishment1, 2 x  x  
 Kim, 2004 [18]2B, 3Ap0.09, 1.6–1.8 C   MRI 1-TCM1, 3 x     
 Lee, 2016 [19]3Ac0–3 A   MRI DWI1 x     
 Chai, 2002 [20]3Ac50–300 A   MRI ASL1 x   H 
 Potdevin,  2004 [21]3Ap2.6–10.4 A x USxReplenishment1, 2 xx  M 
 Lucidarme, 2003 [22]2Bp100–400 A   USxReplenishment1 x   A 
  1. c Continuous, p Pulsatile, A in mL/min, B in mL/min/g, C in cm/s, FAIR Flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery, MBD Model-based deconvolution, 1-TCM Single tissue compartment model, DWI Diffusion weighted imaging, ASL Arterial spin labelling, SVD Singular value decomposition, MSM Maximum slope model, 1 = Phantom/patient characteristics, 2 = Contrast protocol, 3 = Imaging method, 4 = Flow quantification method, AIF Arterial input function, RF Response function, MTT Mean transit time, BV Blood volume, BF Blood flow, H Human, A Animal, M Mathematical