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Table 5 4D flow measurements with GRAPPA2 and k-t-GRAPPA5 sequences of the flow volumes and mean velocities in pulsatile flow in comparison with 2D flow phase-contrast sequences

From: Validation of two accelerated 4D flow MRI sequences at 3 T: a phantom study

2D flow PC 4D flow PC GRAPPA2 4D flow PC k-t-GRAPPA5
Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s
2.7 35 69 2.7 36 72 2.7 35 72
3.6 47 98 3.6 47 100 3.7 48 102
4.4 58 123 4.3 57 120 4.7 58 123
5.7 71 149 5.4 70 147 5.7 71 149
Correlation coefficient R (p value)* 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.99 0.99 0.99
Limits of agreement* -0.18, 0.38 -1.63, 2.13 -5.8, 5.8 -0.38, 0.18 -1.23, 0.73 -5.8, 2.3
  1. 2D two-dimensional, 4D four-dimensional, cm/s centimetres per second, GRAPPA generalised autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, L/min litres per minute, PC phase-contrast
  2. *Correlation coefficients and limits of agreement between the 4D flow PC GRAPPA2 and k-t-GRAPPA5 with the 2D flow PC sequences used as the reference standard