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Table 3 Distribution of measurements of the flow volumes, mean velocity, and peak velocity for 2D flow and two 4D phase-contrast sequences (GRAPPA2 and k-t-GRAPPA5) with different encoded velocities (Venc)

From: Validation of two accelerated 4D flow MRI sequences at 3 T: a phantom study

Venc, cm/s Pump reference 2D flow PC 4D flow PC GRAPPA2 4D flow PC k-t-GRAPPA5
Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s Flow volume, L/min Mean velocity, cm/s Peak velocity, cm/s
140 7.7 101 101 7.8 103 135 7.6 100 126 7.8 103 133
160 7.7 101 101 7.8 103 135 7.6 100 126 7.8 103 131
190 7.7 101 101 7.8 102 138 7.5 99 125 7.9 103 132
220 7.7 101 101 7.8 102 140 7.6 99 129 7.9 104 133
250 7.7 101 101 7.8 103 143 7.6 100 128 8.0 105 136
280 7.7 101 101 7.9 103 126 7.7 102 127 8.0 106 137
350 7.7 101 101 7.9 102 138 7.8 103 131 7.8 104 138
  1. No significant differences between measurements and pump reference (p = 0.395)
  2. 2D two-dimensional, 4D four-dimensional, cm/s centimetres per second, GRAPPA generalised autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, L/min litres per minute, PC phase-contrast, Venc velocity encoding