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Table 1 Distribution of two measurements of the flow volume for 2D flow and two 4D flow phase-contrast sequences (GRAPPA2 and k-t-GRAPPA5) with different rotational frequencies of the blood pump

From: Validation of two accelerated 4D flow MRI sequences at 3 T: a phantom study

Rotational pump output, rpm Venc, cm/s Pump reference flow volume 2D flow PC flow volume 4D flow PC GRAPPA2 flow volume 4D flow PC k-t-GRAPPA5 flow volume
L/min L/min, mean ± SD L/min (difference from the pump reference) L/min, mean ± SD L/min (difference from the pump reference) L/min, mean ± SD L/min (difference from the pump reference) L/min, mean ± SD
Exam 1 Exam 2 Exam 1 Exam 2 Exam 1 Exam 2 Exam 1 Exam 2
1,500 40 1.7 1.7 1.70 ± 0.0 1.7 (+ 0.0) 1.7 (+ 0.0) 1.70 ± 0.0 1.7 (+ 0.0) 1.8 (+ 0.1) 1.75 ± 0.1 1.8 (+ 0.1) 1.7 (+ 0.0) 1.75 ± 0.1
2,000 50 2.4 2.3 2.35 ± 0.1 2.4 (+ 0.0) 2.4 (+ 0.1) 2.40 ± 0.0 2.4 (+ 0.0) 2.4 (+ 0.1) 2.40 ± 0.0 2.3 (-0.1) 2.4 (+ 0.1) 2.35 ± 0.0
2,500 60 3.0 3.0 3.00 ± 0.0 3.1 (+ 0.1) 3.1 (+ 0.1) 3.10 ± 0.0 3.1 (+ 0.1) 3.1 (+ 0.1) 3.10 ± 0.0 3.1 (+ 0.1) 3.2 (+ 0.2) 3.15 ± 0.1
3,000 70 3.8 3.8 3.80 ± 0.0 3.8 (+ 0.0) 3.8 (+ 0.0) 3.80 ± 0.0 3.7 (-0.1) 3.8 (+ 0.0) 3.75 ± 0.1 3.8 (+ 0.0) 3.9 (+ 0.1) 3.85 ± 0.1
3,500 85 4.5 4.5 4.50 ± 0.0 4.6 (+ 0.1) 4.6 (+ 0.1) 4.60 ± 0.0 4.4 (-0.1) 4.5 (+ 0.0) 4.45 ± 0.1 4.6 (+ 0.1) 4.7 (+ 0.2) 4.65 ± 0.1
4,000 100 5.3 5.3 5.30 ± 0.0 5.4 (+ 0.1) 5.4 (+ 0.1) 5.40 ± 0.0 5.2 (-0.1) 5.3 (+ 0.0) 5.25 ± 0.1 5.4 (+ 0.1) 5.5 (+ 0.2) 5.45 ± 0.1
4,500 110 6.1 6.1 6.10 ± 0.0 6.2 (+ 0.1) 6.2 (+ 0.1) 6.20 ± 0.0 6.0 (-0.1) 6.2 (+ 0.1) 6.10 ± 0.1 6.2 (+ 0.1) 6.3 (+ 0.2) 6.25 ± 0.1
5,000 125 6.9 6.9 6.90 ± 0.0 7.0 (+ 0.1) 7.1 (+ 0.2) 7.05 ± 0.1 6.9 (+ 0.0) 6.9 (+ 0.0) 6.90 ± 0.1 7.0 (+ 0.1) 7.1 (+ 0.2) 7.05 ± 0.1
5,500 140 7.7 7.7 7.70 ± 0.0 7.8 (+ 0.1) 7.9 (+ 0.2) 7.85 ± 0.1 7.6 (-0.1) 7.7 (+ 0.0) 7.65 ± 0.1 7.8 (+ 0.1) 7.9 (+ 0.2) 7.85 ± 0.1
  1. No significant differences between measurements and pump reference were observed (p = 0.994)
  2. 2D two-dimensional, 4D four-dimensional, cm/s centimetres per second, GRAPPA generalised autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, L/min litres per minute, PC phase-contrast, SD standard deviation of the mean, Venc velocity encoding