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Table 2 3D printing for cardiac valve replacement: required time for different printed objects with various printing techniques

From: 3D printing for heart valve disease: a systematic review

First author [reference number] Printer Print method Post-treatment Printed object Time
Abdel-Sayed [11] FDM syringe with silicone FDM Dip-coating with silicone Simplified heart model 3 days
Biglino [34] PolyJet PolyJet None Descending aorta 12 h
Kalejs [31] Fab@Home FDM Dip-coating with silicone Aortic root model 200 min
Mahmood [25] Objet260 Connex PolyJet NA Mitral valve 90 min
Mahmood [24] Makerbot Replicator 2X FDM None Mitral annulus 30 min
Mashari [26] Makerbot Replicator 2X FDM Silicone casting Mitral valve 2–5 h
Muraru [30] Formiga P110 Laser sintering NA Tricuspid valve 90–120 min
Ripley [20] Form 1 Plus SLT NA Aortic root 5 h
Owais [29] Makerbot Replicator 2X FDM None Aortic annulus 15 min
  1. FDM fused deposition modeling, SLT stereolithography, NA not applicable